Immunology Lecture 2-5 (2024)

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Immunology Lecture 2-5 (2)

Immunology Lecture 2-5 (3)

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Questions and Answers

Which of the following cytokines is NOT involved in the differentiation of Th17 cells?


What is the primary function of Th2 cells?

Providing help for B cells

Which type of T cell is involved in suppressing stimulatory activity of APCs?


What is the primary function of CD8+ T cells?

<p>Killing target cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cytokine is involved in the differentiation of Th1 cells?

<p>IFN-γ</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the role of TGF-β in the differentiation of Treg cells?

<p>Inducing the differentiation of Treg cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which cells display peptides in the context of highly polymorphic MHC molecules?

<p>APCs</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is required for the activation of T cells?

<p>Two signals</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of CD8 T cells?

<p>To recognise and kill virus-infected or cancerous cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is required for the activation of CD4 T cells?

<p>Two signals, one from the T cell receptor and one from a co-stimulatory molecule</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of MHC class I molecules?

<p>To present antigens to CD8 T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of T cell receptor genes undergoing rearrangements?

<p>The creation of a highly diverse repertoire of T cell receptors</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD28 and CD86?

<p>To provide the second signal for T cell activation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the difference between MHC class I and II molecules?

<p>MHC class I molecules present antigens to CD8 T cells, while MHC class II molecules present antigens to CD4 T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of the interaction between the T cell receptor and MHC molecules?

<p>The recognition of peptides by T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the characteristic of T cell receptors?

<p>They are composed of two chains joined by disulphide bonds</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells?

<p>To present antigens to T cells</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the result of the activation of CD4 T cells?

<p>The activation of macrophages and the production of cytokines</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

T Cell Antigen Recognition

  • Peptides are displayed by cells in the context of highly polymorphic MHC molecules.
  • MHC molecules are highly polymorphic, with MHC I and II having different structures and functions.
  • MHC I is expressed on all nucleated cells, associates with β2 microglobulin, and is endogenously expressed.
  • MHC II is expressed on specialized antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B lymphocytes.

Sources of Peptides Loaded into MHC Class I and II

  • MHC class I is loaded with peptides from viral proteins and endogenous proteins.
  • MHC class II is loaded with peptides from exogenous antigens.

T Cells Recognise Peptides with Their T Cell Receptors

  • T cells are defined by expression of the T cell receptor (TCR), which is a membrane-bound heterodimer.
  • TCR consists of two chains (α and β) joined by disulfide bonds, with variable and constant domains.
  • TCR genes undergo rearrangements from germline before translation.

Two Main Classes of ab T Cell

  • CD8+ T cells (cytotoxic T cells) recognise peptides presented by MHC I.
  • CD4+ T cells (helper T cells) recognise peptides presented by MHC II.

Activation of T Cells Requires Two Signals

  • Signal 1: TCR recognises peptide-MHC complex.
  • Signal 2: Co-stimulation by CD28 and CD86, which is upregulated on APCs by danger signals (infection, inflammation).

CD8 T Cells: Cytotoxic Lymphocytes (CTL)

  • CD8+ T cells are cytotoxic cells that can kill target cells, such as virus-infected cells or cancerous cells.

Activated CD4 Cells Can Differentiate into Different Kinds of Effector T Cells

  • CD4+ T cells can differentiate into different types of helper T cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells.
  • Each type of helper T cell has distinct functions, such as producing different cytokines and providing help to different cells.

CD4+ T Cell Subsets

  • Th1 cells: produce IFN-γ and IL-2, help activate CD8+ T cells and macrophages.
  • Th2 cells: produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, help activate B cells.
  • Th17 cells: produce IL-17, IL-21, and IL-22, help fight extracellular pathogens.
  • Treg cells: produce TGF-β and IL-10, suppress immune responses.

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What is the best topic for immunology? ›

  • NK and Innate Lymphoid Cell Biology.
  • Nutritional Immunology.
  • Parasite Immunology.
  • Primary Immunodeficiencies.
  • Systems Immunology.
  • T Cell Biology.
  • Vaccines and Molecular Therapeutics.
  • Viral Immunology.

What is the immune system for dummies? ›

Summary. The immune system is a complex network of organs, cells and proteins that defends the body against infection, whilst protecting the body's own cells. The immune system keeps a record of every germ (microbe) it has ever defeated so it can recognise and destroy the microbe quickly if it enters the body again.

What is the subject of immunology? ›

Immunology is the branch of biomedical sciences concerned with all aspects of the immune system in all multicellular organisms.

What is the purpose of immunology? ›

Immunology deals with physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease as well as malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders like allergies, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection and autoimmune disorders.

Is immunology a hard subject? ›

The field of immunology is difficult because the immune system is incredibly complicated. The immune system is made up of various components and different systems.

Is becoming an immunologist hard? ›

It should be noted that becoming an immunologist takes more time than some other specialties because it requires successful completion of a two-year fellowship program. In total, becoming an immunologist takes nine to ten years of education beyond a bachelor's degree.

What are the four types of immunity? ›

This protection is called immunity. Humans have three types of immunity — innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate immunity: Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection.

What is taught in immunology? ›

Fundamental or classical immunology involves studying the components that make up the innate and adaptive immune system. Innate immunity is the first line of defence and is non-specific. That is, the responses are the same for all potential pathogens, no matter how different they may be.

Who is the father of immunology? ›

Edward Jenner was born in Gloucestershire, England in 1749, a time when smallpox still claimed the lives of millions of people in periodic epidemics and left millions more with characteristic scars, or pock-marks.

What are the two branches of immunology? ›

The immune system has been divided into a more primitive innate immune system and, in vertebrates, an acquired or adaptive immune system.

What weakens the immune system? ›

Alcohol. Drinking a lot of alcohol is known to suppress our immune system. It weakens our bodies and makes it harder to combat stress, viruses, and diseases. Dietitians recommend sticking to one drink per day for women or two drinks per day for men.

Why do people study immunology? ›

The study of immunology is important in our daily lives because it enables us to understand how the immune system works and how we can optimize its function. For example, by studying the immune system, we can learn about the different types of immune cells and how they work together to fight infections.

What does an immunologist diagnose? ›

Also known as allergists, immunologists are doctors who diagnose, treat, and work to prevent immune system disorders. You may see an immunologist if you have food or seasonal allergies, hay fever, eczema or an autoimmune disease.

What do you study in immunology? ›

Immunology is the study of the immune system and is a very important branch of the medical and biological sciences. The immune system protects us from infection through various lines of defence. If the immune system is not functioning as it should, it can result in disease, such as autoimmunity, allergy and cancer.

What are the topics for advanced immunology? ›

The topics that will be covered include: innate and acquired immune responses; cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunity; antigen processing and presentation; tissue-specific immune responses; immune-mediated pathologies; and vaccination.

What is the focus of immunology? ›

Immunology is the study of the body's immune system and its functions and disorders.

What is the topic of immunity in biology? ›

The role of the immune system is to prevent disease., and mainly consists of two types of white blood cell called phagocytes. and lymphocytes close lymphocytesWhite blood cells which attack pathogens by producing antibodies..


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